Unani Medicine is a form of traditional medicine practiced in Middle- East and South-Asian countries. It refers to a tradition of Graeco-Arabic medicine, which is based on the teachings of Greek physician Hippocrates and Roman physician Galen and developed into an elaborate medical system in middle age era by Arabian and Persian physicians, such as Rhazes (al-Razi), Avicenna (Ibn-e- Sina), Al-Zahrawi, and Ibn Nafis. It originated in Greece almost 2500 years back, which is herbo- animo- mineral in origin (Approximately 90% herbal, 4-5% animal and 5-6 % mineral). It is not only the original science of medicine but also a rich store house of principles and philosophies of medicine which can be of immense value to the medicine in particular and science in general.
Concept of Health
In Unani medicine there are six basic factors which are considered as essential for maintaining good health and prevention of diseases. Health is considered as a state of body with humors in equilibrium and body functions normal.
It is based on six fundamental principle:
Hawa (air), in which the quality of the air a person breathes is thought to have a direct effect on his or her temperament and, thus, health.
Makool-wo-mashroob (food and drink), in which the nutritional value and the quality and quantity of one’s food and drink are believed to ensure physical fitness by strengthening tabiyat.
Harkat-wo-sakoon-e-jismiah (bodily exercise and repose), which emphasizes the positive effects of balanced physical exercise on an individual’s internal resistance and tabiyat.
Harkat-o-sakoon nafsaniah (mental work and rest), which emphasizes the simultaneous engagement of the human mind in numerous emotional and intellectual activities. Just as the body needs systematic and planned exercise and rest, Unani medicine holds that the human mind and brain need adequate stimulation and proper relaxation as well.
Naum-o-yaqzah (sleep and wakefulness), in which an individual’s health and alertness are understood as being dependent on a specific amount of sound sleep in the course of a 24-hour (circadian) cycle.
Ihtebas and istifragh (retention and excretion), which considers the metabolism of food and liquid as both affecting and being regulated by tabiyat. According to Unani medicine, the assimilation of food and liquid facilitates the elimination from the body of excessive and noxious substances. Therefore, to maintain a harmonic and synchronized tabiyat, certain beneficial end-products of kaun-o-fasad (genesis and lysis) are retained in the body while harmful ones are expelled.
Different Methods of Treatment in Unani
Unani system of medicine is one of the most popular Holistic treatment method practiced in India .This system of medicine was followed and patronised by the Muslim rulers of India and till now it is still widely practised in Indian subcontinent .Its a traditional systems of medicine practised since the Hippocratic times .The unani system of medicine mainly emphasises on first knowing the cause of the disease and then depending on the intensity severity and chronicity of the disease the unani physician treats the disease with following methods of treatment.
- ILAJ BIL GHIZA (DIETO THEPRAPY )
- ILAJ BIL DAWA(PHARMACO THERAPY)
- ILAJ BIL TADBEER (REGIMENTAL THERAPY)
- ILAJ BIL YAD (SURGERY)
Hippocrates the father medicine laid the foundation of unani system of medicine in the year 446 B.C.
Human body composition:The human body is mainly composed of four types of humour or Akhlaatand they are
- DUM (BLOOD)
- SAFRAH( BILE)
- SAUDAH(BLACK BILE)
The health of the human body is maintained if these four humours are qualitatively and quantitatively in equilibrium .
The quality and quantity of these humours is disturbed due to external and internal factors.
life style changes, Disturbance in circadian rhythm,sedentary lifestyle, Junk food have led to an increase in lifestyle diseases like Obesity , Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Insomnia,Somnolescense , Anxiety , Depression. External factors likeAllergens in food , water and Air, Toxins ,pollutants,poisonous substances and Animate factors like Bacteria and Viruses are directly or indirectly responsible for various diseases. With the advancement in modern technology and research in molecular and genetic sciences it’s now established that no two individuals are similar and the medicine has to be tailored and dosed according to the metabolic constitution of an individual leading to the development of individualized treatment protocols . This same principle of treatment has been followed by popular unani physicians like Buqraat,JALINOOS, IBNE SINA, ABUALKHASIM ZAHRAWI, RABBAN TABRI , ZAKRIYA RHAZI, HAKEEM AJMAL KHAN ,HAKEEM HAMEED KHAN and HAKEEM ABDUL RAZZAK. These physician may not had the help of the modern and scientifically advanced instruments to detect the fine molecular and systemic changes brought by the diseases but with their years of clinical experience and wisdom were able to successfully treat the diseases by first analysing the temperament and severity of the disease and prescribing the appropriate herbal medicine in the form ofsingle drugs( Mufarradaat ) or compound drug preparations like Majoon,khamirah ,Itrifil,sufoof ,Joshanda, Khaisandah,Huboob,Qurs etc. With the growing resistance to antibiotics now the modern medicine is emphasising on testing the treatment of diseases with traditional methods and Herbal drugs are now being used in majority of modern medicines . Unani system of medicine since time immemorial has been using herbal drugs to treat various diseases successfully .
Various Chronic and systemic diseases treated successfully with unani medicine are Migraine, Hair loss
Hypothyroidism, Hyper thyroidism
Acidity,GERD (gastro esophagial reflux disease) Gastritis ,Constipation , Haemmorhoids IBS(Irritable bowel syndrome ) Fatty liver syndrome
Renal calculus, Jiryan
Gout , Osteo arthritis , RHEUMATOID arthritis
Sciatica, varicose veins and specially autoimmune diseases show marked improvement in condition and decrease in symptoms when treated with Herbal treatment.
More than 1500 herbal drugs are documented and used in unani system of medicine to treat various diseases.